Such an idea would not have occurred to anyone; and, if it had, he could not have carried it out with such marvellous success. They had access to practically the whole Christian literature of preceding centuries; but they nowhere hint that the authorship of the Gospel (and Acts) was ever called in question. He travelled much and had for instructors in the Faith an Ionian, an Italian, a Syrian, an Egyptian, an Assyrian, and a Hebrew in Palestine. Tertullian was born at Carthage, lived some time in Rome, and then returned to Carthage. and writes: "I say then that among them, and not only among the Apostolic Churches, but among all the Churches which are united with them in Christian fellowship, the Gospel of Luke, which we earnestly defend, has been maintained from its first publication" (Adv. The Gospels had been copied and recopied so often, that, through errors of copying, etc., distinct families of text had time to establish themselves.
If we take a few chapters of the Gospel and note down the special, peculiar, and characteristic words, phrases and constructions, and then open the Acts at random, we shall find the same literary peculiarities constantly recurring. This, taken by itself, would be a stronger argument than can be adduced for the majority of classical works. Clement of Alexandria was probably born at Athens about A. "And these men, preserving the true tradition of the blessed teaching directly from Peter and James, John and Paul, the holy Apostles, son receiving it from father, came by God's providence even unto us, to deposit among us those seeds [of truth] which were derived from their ancestors and the Apostles". His quotations from the Gospels, when brought together by Rönsch, cover two hundred pages. The Gospels were so widespread that they became known to pagans. In his "Apology" he speaks of the memoirs of the Lord which are called Gospels, and which were written by Apostles (Matthew, John) and disciples of the Apostles (Mark, Luke).
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Paul during the two years of the latter's imprisonment at Cæarea. But it is not alone in vocabulary, syntax and style, that this uniformity is manifest. His choice of medical language proves that the author was a physician.
In that period he might well become acquainted with the circumstances of the death of Herod Agrippa I, who had died there eaten up by worms" (), and he was likely to be better informed on the subject than Josephus. In "The Acts of the Apostles", Harnack devotes many pages to a detailed consideration of the manner in which chronological data, and terms dealing with lands, nations, cities, and houses, are employed throughout the Acts, as well as the mode of dealing with persons and miracles, and he everywhere shows that the unity of authorship cannot be denied except by those who ignore the facts. Westein, in his preface to the Gospel ("Novum Test.
A few are found in Aristotle, but he was a doctor's son. has now been converted by Harnack's argument, founded in part, as he himself confesses, on the researches of English scholars, especially Dr. The words with which Hippocrates begins his treatise "On Ancient Medicine" should be noted in this connection: (Plummer, 4).
The words and phrases cited are either peculiar to the Third Gospel and Acts, or are more frequent than in other New Testament writings. When all these considerations are fully taken into account, they prove that the companion of St. Writing to the Colossians (iv, 11), he says: "Luke, the most dear physician, saluteth you." He was, therefore, with St. Several writers have given examples of parallelism between the Gospel and the Pauline Epistles.
' [Luke ], even as I learned from the Memoirs of this fact also." These Gospels which were read every Sunday must be the same as our four, which soon after, in the time of Irenæus, were in such long established honour, and regarded by him as inspired by the Holy Ghost. About the same time the Gospels, together with their titles, were translated into Latin; and here, again, we meet the phenomena of variant readings, to be found in Clement, Irenæus, Old Syriac, Justin, and Celsus, pointing to a long period of previous copying.
We never hear, says Salmon, of any revolution dethroning one set of Gospels and replacing them by another; so we may be sure that the Gospels honoured by the Church in Justin's day were the same as those to which the same respect was paid in the days of Irenæus, not many years after. Finally, we may ask, if the author of the two books were not St. Harnack (Luke the Physician, 2) holds that as the Gospel begins with a prologue addressed to an individual (Theophilus) it must, of necessity, have contained in its title the name of its author. Luke were not the author, that the name of the real, and truly great, writer came to be completely buried in oblivion, to make room for the name of such a comparatively obscure disciple as St. Apart from his connection, as supposed author, with the Third Gospel and Acts, was no more prominent than Aristarchus and Epaphras; and he is mentioned only in three places in the whole of the New Testament.
The Gospel and Acts are both dedicated to Theophilus and the author of the latter work claims to be the author of the former (Acts 1:1). Every ancient testimony for the authenticity of Acts tells equally in favour of the Gospel; and every passage for the Lucan authorship of the Gospel gives a like support to the authenticity of Acts. John the Apostle, and in his numerous writings he frequently mentions other disciples of the Apostles. 130 (some say much earlier), is, therefore, a witness for the early tradition of Asia Minor, Rome, and Gaul.
The style and arrangement of both are so much alike that the supposition that one was written by a forger in imitation of the other is absolutely excluded. Besides, in many places of the early Fathers both books are ascribed to St. The external evidence can be touched upon here only in the briefest manner. He was priest in Lyons during the persecution in 177, and was the bearer of the letter of the confessors to Rome. He quotes the Gospels just as any modern bishop would do, he calls them Scripture, believes even in their verbal inspiration; shows how congruous it is that there are four and only four Gospels; and says that Luke, who begins with the priesthood and sacrifice of Zachary, is the calf.
Luke", introd.) The word seems to have been unknown before the Christian Era; but Lucanus is common in inscriptions, and is found at the beginning and end of the Gospel in some Old Latin manuscripts (ibid.). In Codex Bezæ (D) Luke is introduced by a "we" as early as Acts ; and, though this is not a correct reading, it represents a very ancient tradition. Paul from those of the circumcision (Colossians ), and his style proves that he was a Greek.
(Luke) is probably an abbreviation from Lucanus, like Annas from Ananus, Apollos from Apollonius, Artemas from Artemidorus, Demas from Demetrius, etc. des heiligen Lucas", 1, 2; Lightfoot on "Col.", iv, 14; Plummer, "St. Eusebius (--"Lucas vero domo Antiochenus, arte medicus, qui et cum Paulo diu conjunctissime vixit, et cum reliquis Apostolis studiose versatus est." Eusebius has a clearer statement in his "Quæstiones Evangelicæ", IV, i, 270: --"Luke was by birth a native of the renowned Antioch" (Schmiedel, "Encyc. Spitta, Schmiedel, and Harnack think this is a quotation from Julius Africanus (first half of the third century).
We should naturally expect that the long intercourse between St. Luke would mutually influence their vocabulary, and their writings show that this was really the case. Westcott shows that there is no trace in Justin of the use of any written document on the life of Christ except our Gospels. that His parents went thither [to Bethlehem] in consequence of an enrolment under Cyrinius that as they could not find a lodging in the village they lodged in a cave close by it, where Christ was born, and laid by Mary in a manger", etc. There is a constant intermixture in Justin's quotations of the narratives of St. He states, however, that the memoirs which were called Gospels were read in the churches on Sunday along with the writings of the Prophets, in other words, they were placed on an equal rank with the Old Testament.